2022-2023 Course Catalog

Biology (BA/BS)

Biology includes the study of the structure, function, and interactions of living organisms at multiple levels; it is a field that is evolving rapidly. This major provides students with a broad interdisciplinary base in scientific knowledge combined with an in-depth exploration of a preferred area of interest. The B.A. degree is appropriate for students who want to demonstrate their capability in biology, but also want to explore related areas like teaching.

Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion of the major, students will be able to:

  • Write well on exams, short paper, long papers and laboratory reports.
  • Make oral reports of varying lengths, either alone or as part of a team.
  • Prepare and present posters at scientific meetings.
  • Exhibit critical thinking when reading texts, lecture supplements, and other materials.
  • Prepare a literature review and a bibliography on a topic in biology.
  • Obtain relevant information from primary sources in a library or online.
  • Demonstrate knowledge about the broad core of biology.
  • Recognize and use connections of biology to chemistry, computing, mathematics and statistics.
  • Use ethical scientific methods in obtaining and evaluating data.
  • Demonstrate proper methods in the design and conduct of research.
  • Use microscopes, balances and other basic biological equipment.
  • Prepare solutions and dilution series.
  • Perform dissections and organism identification.
  • Demonstrate safety in the laboratory.
  • Make proper disposal of wastes.

Learning Outcomes Matrix [PDF]

» Click here to view more detailed learning outcomes listings for each course.

Chatham University Biology

Buhl Hall • Woodland Road • Pittsburgh, PA 15232

Curriculum

+Major Requirements (BA and BS Degrees)

All biology majors must complete IND 350, BIO 498 and 499, and at least two biology courses with a laboratory component at Chatham University.

+Major Requirements (BA)

17 courses, including:

BIO143 The Cell

This course is designed to provide a broad overview of current biological concepts, including cell structure, function, division, and basic genetics. Biologically important molecules also are presented. This course serves as the foundation for all upper-level biology courses. Three hours of class

3
BIO143L Lab: The Cell

Experiments to complement the material presented in BIO143. Two hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite or Prerequisite: BIO143. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fee.

1
BIO144 The Organism

This course provides a general survey of animals and plants at the organismic level, with emphasis on their evolution and various physiological processes such as respiration, circulation, digestion, and reproduction. This course serves as the foundation for all upper-level biology courses. Three hours of class.

3
BIO144L Lab: The Organism

Experiments to complement the material presented in BIO144. Two hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite: BIO144. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fees.

1
CHM108 Chemistry II

This course is the second course in a two-semester sequence designed to provide a robust foundation in the principles of chemistry. Topics include thermochemistry, phase changes, chemical equilibrium, acids and bases, reactions in aqueous solution, thermodynamics, kinetics, and electrochemistry.

Pre-requisites Complete any 1 of the following courses:
  • CHM105 General Chemistry
  • CHM107 Chemistry I
  • 3
    CHM110L Chemistry II Laboratory

    Continued introduction to the basic experimental procedures and laboratory techniques in chemistry. Experiments are correlated with lectures in Chemistry 108. Three hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite: CHM 108. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fee.

    1
    IND200W Introduction to Scientific Research

    This course introduces students to all phases of research from conceptualization of the research question to the interpretation of results. Topics include why and how to conduct research, the scientific method, issues key to research (research design, causation, data collection). Statistical software packages and basic statistical analysis will be covered.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • ENG105 First-Year Writing
  • 2
    IND350W Scientific Research Methods

    This course serves as an introduction to research literature and research methodology in the sciences. Topics include professional writing, experimental design, presentation techniques, and professional and research ethics. Credit is not given for both IND350W and EXS301W.

    2
    BIO490 Integrative Capstone

    The integrative capstone, undertaken by the student during the senior year, is an extended project that helps the student complete their transition from an undergraduate student to a world-ready professional. The study usually centers on the student's major and may be conducted, at least in part, in the context of a group experience. Such programs are crafted to meet the unique needs of each major, and could include, for example, fieldwork, theater production, creative work in the arts, independent research, or independent readings. The integrative capstone in an interdisciplinary major must have the approval of both academic programs.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • IND350W Scientific Research Methods
  • 3
    Choose 1 200-level elective with a lab - see elective pool below
    BIO2XX - Biology Elective
    BIO2XXL - Biology Elective Lab
    Choose 1 200-level without a Lab - see elective pool below
    BIO2XX
    Choose 1 300-400-level elective with a Lab - see elective pool below
    BIO3XX or BIO4XX - Biology Elective
    BIO3XXL or BIO4XXL - Biology Elective Lab
    --------------------
    BIO200-level electives:
    BIO201 Anatomy

    This course introduces students to the basic concepts of anatomy. Lectures emphasize the human body and clinical applications of anatomy. They focus on anatomical terminology, gross structures, body movements, forming a three-dimensional mental image of body parts, and functional understanding of normal structures. Three hours of class per week.

    Pre-requisites Complete all 2 of the following courses:
  • BIO143 The Cell
  • BIO144 The Organism
  • 3
    BIO209 Basic Neuroscience

    This course is designed for wide appeal. It is an introduction to structure and function of the brain and spinal cord, and how nerves function and communicate. The basics of movement, sensation, language, emotion, and consciousness are discussed. Emphasis is placed on contrasting normal function with altered function in diseases. Three hours lecture per week.

    Pre-requisites Complete all 3 of the following courses:
  • BIO143 The Cell
  • BIO144 The Organism
  • CHM108 Chemistry II
  • 3
    BIO217 Human Genetics

    This course covers the underlying basis of genetic disorders. A foundation of basic genetic concepts such as Mendelian genetics and exceptions to Mendel’s laws, chromosomal inheritance, and molecular genetics are taught and applied to the following advanced topics: epigenetics, medical genetics, cancer, biotechnology, population genetics, and evolutionary genetics.

    Pre-requisites Complete all 2 of the following courses:
  • BIO143 The Cell
  • BIO144 The Organism
  • 3
    BIO218 Women's Health Issues

    This course examines the biology of women, both cis gender and people within trans communities, providing a framework for the discussion of health issues, current research, treatments, and historical perspectives. Aspects of reproductive life and an examination of psychological, sociological and cultural influence.

    3
    BIO221 General Microbiology

    The study of fundamental characteristics of bacteria and related microorganisms, including taxonomy, physiology, and distribution. Three class meetings per week.

    Pre-requisites Complete all 3 of the following courses:
  • BIO143 The Cell
  • BIO144 The Organism
  • CHM108 Chemistry II
  • 3
    BIO231 Cell and Molecular Biology

    A lecture course covering the organelles and activities of cells. Topics include the structure of proteins and other biomolecules, bioenergetics and enzymes, membranes, the mitochondrion, the chloroplast, the endo-membrane system, the cytoskeleton, and the nucleus and cellular reproduction.

    Pre-requisites Complete all 2 of the following courses:
  • BIO143 The Cell
  • CHM108 Chemistry II
  • 3
    BIO231W Cell and Molecular Biology

    A lecture course covering the organelles and activities of cells. Topics include the structure of proteins and other biomolecules, bioenergetics and enzymes, membranes, the mitochondrion, the chloroplast, the endo-membrane system, the cytoskeleton, and the nucleus and cellular reproduction.

    Pre-requisites Complete all 3 of the following courses:
  • BIO143 The Cell
  • CHM108 Chemistry II
  • BIO144 The Organism
  • 3
    BIO224 Botany

    An introduction to the structure and function of plants. Topics include the evolutionary rise of green plants, plant life cycles and development, plant physiology, plant ecology, and the morphology and taxonomy of vascular plants. The importance of plants fro humans is discussed, including their use for food and medicine. Three hours of lecture per week.

    Pre-requisites Complete any 1 of the following courses:
  • BIO144 The Organism
  • SUS201 Integrative Biology
  • 3
    BIO248 Ecology

    A study of the interrelation between organisms and their environment. Three hours of lecture per week.

    Pre-requisites Complete all 2 of the following courses:
  • BIO144 The Organism
  • BIO143 The Cell
  • Complete the following course:
  • SUS201 Integrative Biology
  • 3
    *or additional course pre-approved by the Department Chair
    --------------------
    BIO200 or above lab electives:
    BIO201L Lab: Anatomy

    Laboratory experiments emphasizing comparative anatomy between humans and other animals. Three hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite: BIO201. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fees.

    Pre-requisites Complete all 2 of the following courses:
  • BIO143 The Cell
  • BIO144 The Organism
  • 2
    BIO302L Physiology Lab

    Laboratory experiments emphasizing comparative physiology between human and other animals. Three hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite: BIO302. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fees.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • BIO201L Lab: Anatomy
  • 2
    BIO221L Lab: General Microbiology

    Experiments to complement the material in BIO221. Four hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite: BIO221. Addtional Fee(s): Laboratory fees.

    Co-requisites
    • BIO221 General Microbiology
    2
    BIO224 Botany

    An introduction to the structure and function of plants. Topics include the evolutionary rise of green plants, plant life cycles and development, plant physiology, plant ecology, and the morphology and taxonomy of vascular plants. The importance of plants fro humans is discussed, including their use for food and medicine. Three hours of lecture per week.

    Pre-requisites Complete any 1 of the following courses:
  • BIO144 The Organism
  • SUS201 Integrative Biology
  • 3
    BIO209LW Basic Neuroscience Lab

    Experiments and skills to compliment the material presented in BIO209. The lab course focuses on experimental procedures, scientific analysis and scientific writing. Three hours of laboratory per week. Laboratory Fee. Corequisite: BIO 209.

    2
    BIO248LW Lab: Ecology

    Experiments to complement the material presented in BIO248. Four hours of laboratory or field experience per week. Corequisite: BIO248. Additional Fee (s): Laboratory fee.

    2
    *or additional course pre-approved by the Department Chair
    --------------------
    BIO WI lab electives:
    BIO209LW Basic Neuroscience Lab

    Experiments and skills to compliment the material presented in BIO209. The lab course focuses on experimental procedures, scientific analysis and scientific writing. Three hours of laboratory per week. Laboratory Fee. Corequisite: BIO 209.

    2
    BIO221LW Lab: General Microbiology

    Experiments to complement the material in BIO221. Four hours of laboratory per week. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fees.

    Co-requisites
    • BIO221 General Microbiology
    • BIO303 Applied and Environmental Microbiology
    2
    BIO248LW Lab: Ecology

    Experiments to complement the material presented in BIO248. Four hours of laboratory or field experience per week. Corequisite: BIO248. Additional Fee (s): Laboratory fee.

    2
    BIO303LW Applied and Environmental Microbiology Lab

    This course will focus on modern laboratory techniques for the identification, purification, and cultivation of microorganisms at the bench; combined with microbial genomics and applied bioinformatic analyses through participation in authentic scientific research.

    Co-requisites
    • BIO303 Applied and Environmental Microbiology
    2
    *or additional course pre-approved by the Department Chair
    --------------------
    BIO300-400-level electives:
    BIO302 Physiology

    This course introduces students to the basic concepts of physiology. The lectures will emphasize chemical principles, cellular biological principles, and a survey of the nervous, endocrine, immune, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, excretory, respiratory, and digestive systems. The laboratory will emphasize comparative physiology between humans and other animals. Three hours of class per week.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • BIO201 Anatomy
  • 3
    BIO303 Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    This course will focus on the importance of microorganisms in environmental and industrial processes, and the role of scientific research in finding solutions to applied problems. Areas that will be covered include basic microbiology, soil and water microbiology, agricultural and food microbiology, and public health microbiology.

    3
    BIO319 Experimental Neuroscience

    With an emphasis on neuropathology, the course builds on the foundations of neuroscience to explore advanced topics in sensation, motor control. emotion, and cognition. Classical and modern methods for investigating the structure and function of the nervous system will be examined through lectures, discussions, and student projects.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • BIO209 Basic Neuroscience
  • Complete any 1 of the following courses:
  • BIO231 Cell and Molecular Biology
  • BIO231W Cell and Molecular Biology
  • 3
    BIO408 Developmental Biology

    A study of the embryonic and post-embryonic development of animals, with special emphasis on humans. The morphogenesis, growth and mechanisms of differentiation are stressed. Other topics include cancer, regeneration, cloning, hormones as mediators of development, and developmental genetics.

    Pre-requisites Complete any 1 of the following courses:
  • BIO231 Cell and Molecular Biology
  • BIO231W Cell and Molecular Biology
  • 3
    BIO417 Genetics

    This study of the modern concepts of the gene stresses theory and experimental evidence relating to the structure of the gene, heritability of characteristics, and the behavior of genes in populations. Three hours of lecture per week.

    Pre-requisites Complete all 3 of the following courses:
  • BIO231W Cell and Molecular Biology
  • CHM205 Organic Chemistry I
  • MTH110 Elementary Statistics
  • 3
    BIO419 Immunology

    This course covers fundamental principles of immunology with emphasis on molecular and cellular immunology, including antigen and antibody structure and function, effector mechanisms, complement, major histocompatibility complexes, and the cellular basis for the immune response. Three hours of lecture per week. Prerequisite(s): BIO221 or BIO302

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • BIO221 General Microbiology
  • 3
    BIO458 Histology

    A microscopic analysis of human and animal tissue and organ function at the cellular level. Material comes from text book, lecture, images and animations in addition to practical application and identification of histological specimens. Recommended for students planning to apply to professional schools of medicine, veterinary medicine, or dentistry.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • BIO201 Anatomy
  • 3
    BIO484 Plant Physiology

    This course is an introduction to the physiology and biochemistry of plants. Lectures and laboratory exercises cover plant cells, enzymes, transport of water and nutrients, metabolism, defenses against pathogens, gene expression, hormones, and responses to environmental stimuli. Three lectures per week.

    Pre-requisites Complete any 1 of the following courses:
  • CHM108 Chemistry II
  • BIO224 Botany
  • 3
    CHM338 Biochemistry I

    This course covers the structure and functions of proteins, polynucleic acids, and biological membranes. Enzymes and kinetics are taught. Metabolic pathways, with emphasis on the thermodynamics of the equilibria and the storage and usage of energy, are covered.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • CHM205 Organic Chemistry I
  • 3
    CHM339 Biochemistry II

    Metabolism is studied with an emphasis on anabolic pathways and special pathways such as cytochrome P450. Other topics include molecular genetics and protein synthesis, hormones and receptors, and immunology. Cross-listed as BIO438

    Pre-requisites Complete all 2 of the following courses:
  • CHM206 Organic Chemistry II
  • CHM338 Biochemistry I
  • 3
    *or additional course pre-approved by the Department Chair
    --------------------
    BIO300-400-level lab electives:
    BIO302L Physiology Lab

    Laboratory experiments emphasizing comparative physiology between human and other animals. Three hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite: BIO302. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fees.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • BIO201L Lab: Anatomy
  • 2
    BIO303LW Applied and Environmental Microbiology Lab

    This course will focus on modern laboratory techniques for the identification, purification, and cultivation of microorganisms at the bench; combined with microbial genomics and applied bioinformatic analyses through participation in authentic scientific research.

    Co-requisites
    • BIO303 Applied and Environmental Microbiology
    2
    BIO440L Macromolecule Laboratory

    An advanced laboratory course for junior and senior science majors who wish to gain theoretical and practical experience with the techniques and equipment commonly used in the fields of cellular biology, molecular biology, and biochemistry. Topics include PCR, electrophoresis, enzyme kinetics, aseptic cell and tissue culture, cell surface receptors, and molecular modeling. Five-hour laboratory with one-hour pre-lab lecture each week. Cross-listed as CHM340.

    2
    BIO484L Lab: Plant Physiology

    Experiments to complement the material presented in BIO384. Four hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite: BIO484. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fees.

    Co-requisites
    • BIO484 Plant Physiology
    2

    +Major Requirements (BS)

    All B.S. biology majors must complete the set of core courses in addition to the courses in one of the three available concentration areas listed below.

    Core of 13 courses, including:
    BIO143 The Cell

    This course is designed to provide a broad overview of current biological concepts, including cell structure, function, division, and basic genetics. Biologically important molecules also are presented. This course serves as the foundation for all upper-level biology courses. Three hours of class

    3
    BIO143L Lab: The Cell

    Experiments to complement the material presented in BIO143. Two hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite or Prerequisite: BIO143. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fee.

    1
    BIO144 The Organism

    This course provides a general survey of animals and plants at the organismic level, with emphasis on their evolution and various physiological processes such as respiration, circulation, digestion, and reproduction. This course serves as the foundation for all upper-level biology courses. Three hours of class.

    3
    BIO144L Lab: The Organism

    Experiments to complement the material presented in BIO144. Two hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite: BIO144. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fees.

    1
    BIO490 Integrative Capstone

    The integrative capstone, undertaken by the student during the senior year, is an extended project that helps the student complete their transition from an undergraduate student to a world-ready professional. The study usually centers on the student's major and may be conducted, at least in part, in the context of a group experience. Such programs are crafted to meet the unique needs of each major, and could include, for example, fieldwork, theater production, creative work in the arts, independent research, or independent readings. The integrative capstone in an interdisciplinary major must have the approval of both academic programs.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • IND350W Scientific Research Methods
  • 3
    CHM107 Chemistry I

    This course is the first course in a two-semester sequence designed to provide a robust foundation in the principles of chemistry. Topics include atomic and electronic structure, periodicity, nomenclature, dimensional analysis, reaction stoichiometry, molecular shapes, bonding, intermolecular forces, gases, solids, liquids, and solutions.

    3
    CHM108 Chemistry II

    This course is the second course in a two-semester sequence designed to provide a robust foundation in the principles of chemistry. Topics include thermochemistry, phase changes, chemical equilibrium, acids and bases, reactions in aqueous solution, thermodynamics, kinetics, and electrochemistry.

    Pre-requisites Complete any 1 of the following courses:
  • CHM105 General Chemistry
  • CHM107 Chemistry I
  • 3
    IND350 Scientific Research Methods

    This course serves as an introduction to research literature and research methodology in the sciences. Students prepare a research proposal including literature review, experimental design and methods, budget, timetable, and bibliography. Other topics include professional presentation techniques and research ethics. The student's major department must approve proposals prior to the Tutorial.

    2
    INTBIO303 Internship - Biology

    Internship - Biology

    3
    MTH110 Elementary Statistics

    Topics include statistical measures and distributions, decision making under uncertainty, application of probability to statistical inference, linear correlation, introduction to nonparametric statistical methods, and application to problems drawn from the natural and social sciences. Three hours of class per week. Three hours of class per week.

    3
    Note: Students in the Human Biology track may substitute PSY 213 for MTH 110

    +Minor in Biology

    8 courses, including:

    BIO143 The Cell

    This course is designed to provide a broad overview of current biological concepts, including cell structure, function, division, and basic genetics. Biologically important molecules also are presented. This course serves as the foundation for all upper-level biology courses. Three hours of class

    3
    BIO143L Lab: The Cell

    Experiments to complement the material presented in BIO143. Two hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite or Prerequisite: BIO143. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fee.

    1
    BIO144 The Organism

    This course provides a general survey of animals and plants at the organismic level, with emphasis on their evolution and various physiological processes such as respiration, circulation, digestion, and reproduction. This course serves as the foundation for all upper-level biology courses. Three hours of class.

    3
    BIO144L Lab: The Organism

    Experiments to complement the material presented in BIO144. Two hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite: BIO144. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fees.

    1
    3 courses selected from biology courses numbered 200 or above; at least two of these must have a laboratory component.
    1 biology elective or any science or mathematics course approved in advance and not already counted toward a major or minor.

    +Track: Human Biology

    57 Credits of Required Courses and Restricted Electives

    This track is designed for students interested in human biology and its application to allied health care professions (e.g., physician assistant studies, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and nursing.) This curriculum is also appropriate for students who wish to enter law, public health, and health policy fields with a strong science background. It contains 11 courses, including:

    BIO123 Nutrition

    An introduction to nutrients, their composition, functions, and sources. Human physiology, including digestion, metabolism, and excretion, is covered, along with special nutritional needs throughout the life cycle. Integrated with this basic information are special topics pertaining to diets, organic foods, preservatives, pesticides, world hunger, and other current concerns.

    3
    BIO143 The Cell

    This course is designed to provide a broad overview of current biological concepts, including cell structure, function, division, and basic genetics. Biologically important molecules also are presented. This course serves as the foundation for all upper-level biology courses. Three hours of class

    3
    BIO143L Lab: The Cell

    Experiments to complement the material presented in BIO143. Two hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite or Prerequisite: BIO143. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fee.

    1
    BIO144 The Organism

    This course provides a general survey of animals and plants at the organismic level, with emphasis on their evolution and various physiological processes such as respiration, circulation, digestion, and reproduction. This course serves as the foundation for all upper-level biology courses. Three hours of class.

    3
    BIO144L Lab: The Organism

    Experiments to complement the material presented in BIO144. Two hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite: BIO144. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fees.

    1
    BIO201 Anatomy

    This course introduces students to the basic concepts of anatomy. Lectures emphasize the human body and clinical applications of anatomy. They focus on anatomical terminology, gross structures, body movements, forming a three-dimensional mental image of body parts, and functional understanding of normal structures. Three hours of class per week.

    Pre-requisites Complete all 2 of the following courses:
  • BIO143 The Cell
  • BIO144 The Organism
  • 3
    BIO201L Lab: Anatomy

    Laboratory experiments emphasizing comparative anatomy between humans and other animals. Three hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite: BIO201. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fees.

    Pre-requisites Complete all 2 of the following courses:
  • BIO143 The Cell
  • BIO144 The Organism
  • 2
    BIO209 Basic Neuroscience

    This course is designed for wide appeal. It is an introduction to structure and function of the brain and spinal cord, and how nerves function and communicate. The basics of movement, sensation, language, emotion, and consciousness are discussed. Emphasis is placed on contrasting normal function with altered function in diseases. Three hours lecture per week.

    Pre-requisites Complete all 3 of the following courses:
  • BIO143 The Cell
  • BIO144 The Organism
  • CHM108 Chemistry II
  • 3
    BIO209LW Basic Neuroscience Lab

    Experiments and skills to compliment the material presented in BIO209. The lab course focuses on experimental procedures, scientific analysis and scientific writing. Three hours of laboratory per week. Laboratory Fee. Corequisite: BIO 209.

    2
    ------------------
    BIO217 Human Genetics

    This course covers the underlying basis of genetic disorders. A foundation of basic genetic concepts such as Mendelian genetics and exceptions to Mendel’s laws, chromosomal inheritance, and molecular genetics are taught and applied to the following advanced topics: epigenetics, medical genetics, cancer, biotechnology, population genetics, and evolutionary genetics.

    Pre-requisites Complete all 2 of the following courses:
  • BIO143 The Cell
  • BIO144 The Organism
  • 3
    OR
    BIO417 Genetics

    This study of the modern concepts of the gene stresses theory and experimental evidence relating to the structure of the gene, heritability of characteristics, and the behavior of genes in populations. Three hours of lecture per week.

    Pre-requisites Complete all 3 of the following courses:
  • BIO231W Cell and Molecular Biology
  • CHM205 Organic Chemistry I
  • MTH110 Elementary Statistics
  • 3
    ------------------
    BIO221 General Microbiology

    The study of fundamental characteristics of bacteria and related microorganisms, including taxonomy, physiology, and distribution. Three class meetings per week.

    Pre-requisites Complete all 3 of the following courses:
  • BIO143 The Cell
  • BIO144 The Organism
  • CHM108 Chemistry II
  • 3
    BIO221L Lab: General Microbiology

    Experiments to complement the material in BIO221. Four hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite: BIO221. Addtional Fee(s): Laboratory fees.

    Co-requisites
    • BIO221 General Microbiology
    2
    BIO302 Physiology

    This course introduces students to the basic concepts of physiology. The lectures will emphasize chemical principles, cellular biological principles, and a survey of the nervous, endocrine, immune, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, excretory, respiratory, and digestive systems. The laboratory will emphasize comparative physiology between humans and other animals. Three hours of class per week.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • BIO201 Anatomy
  • 3
    BIO302L Physiology Lab

    Laboratory experiments emphasizing comparative physiology between human and other animals. Three hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite: BIO302. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fees.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • BIO201L Lab: Anatomy
  • 2
    ------------------
    BIO419 Immunology

    This course covers fundamental principles of immunology with emphasis on molecular and cellular immunology, including antigen and antibody structure and function, effector mechanisms, complement, major histocompatibility complexes, and the cellular basis for the immune response. Three hours of lecture per week. Prerequisite(s): BIO221 or BIO302

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • BIO221 General Microbiology
  • 3
    OR
    BIO458 Histology

    A microscopic analysis of human and animal tissue and organ function at the cellular level. Material comes from text book, lecture, images and animations in addition to practical application and identification of histological specimens. Recommended for students planning to apply to professional schools of medicine, veterinary medicine, or dentistry.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • BIO201 Anatomy
  • 3
    ------------------
    BIO490 Integrative Capstone

    The integrative capstone, undertaken by the student during the senior year, is an extended project that helps the student complete their transition from an undergraduate student to a world-ready professional. The study usually centers on the student's major and may be conducted, at least in part, in the context of a group experience. Such programs are crafted to meet the unique needs of each major, and could include, for example, fieldwork, theater production, creative work in the arts, independent research, or independent readings. The integrative capstone in an interdisciplinary major must have the approval of both academic programs.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • IND350W Scientific Research Methods
  • 3
    CHM108 Chemistry II

    This course is the second course in a two-semester sequence designed to provide a robust foundation in the principles of chemistry. Topics include thermochemistry, phase changes, chemical equilibrium, acids and bases, reactions in aqueous solution, thermodynamics, kinetics, and electrochemistry.

    Pre-requisites Complete any 1 of the following courses:
  • CHM105 General Chemistry
  • CHM107 Chemistry I
  • 3
    CHM110L Chemistry II Laboratory

    Continued introduction to the basic experimental procedures and laboratory techniques in chemistry. Experiments are correlated with lectures in Chemistry 108. Three hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite: CHM 108. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fee.

    1
    CHM205 Organic Chemistry I

    Development of the structural theory of organic compounds. Relationship of structure to reactivity, stereochemistry, types of organic reactive intermediates, and the chemistry of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic compounds are covered. Co-requisite: CHM 215.

    Pre-requisites Complete all 2 of the following courses:
  • CHM108 Chemistry II
  • CHM110L Chemistry II Laboratory
  • 3
    CHM215L Elementary Organic Laboratory

    Basic manipulative skills, including introduction to several chromatographic techniques, are followed by chemistry of alkenes and aromatic compounds. Four hours of laboratory per week. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fee.

    2
    IND200W Introduction to Scientific Research

    This course introduces students to all phases of research from conceptualization of the research question to the interpretation of results. Topics include why and how to conduct research, the scientific method, issues key to research (research design, causation, data collection). Statistical software packages and basic statistical analysis will be covered.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • ENG105 First-Year Writing
  • 2
    IND350W Scientific Research Methods

    This course serves as an introduction to research literature and research methodology in the sciences. Topics include professional writing, experimental design, presentation techniques, and professional and research ethics. Credit is not given for both IND350W and EXS301W.

    2
    MTH151 Calculus I

    This is the first course in the calculus sequence. Topics include differential and integral calculus for algebraic and trigonometric functions with applications. Four hours of class per week.

    4

    +Track: Cell and Molecular Biology

    55-57 Credits of Required Courses and Restricted Electives

    This track is designed for students who plan to enter a biological sciences graduate program or professional medical program (e.g., medicine, dentistry, veterinary sciences), and for those interested in career paths in biotechnology, biomedical research, and related areas. It contains 12 courses, including:

    BIO143 The Cell

    This course is designed to provide a broad overview of current biological concepts, including cell structure, function, division, and basic genetics. Biologically important molecules also are presented. This course serves as the foundation for all upper-level biology courses. Three hours of class

    3
    BIO143L Lab: The Cell

    Experiments to complement the material presented in BIO143. Two hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite or Prerequisite: BIO143. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fee.

    1
    BIO144 The Organism

    This course provides a general survey of animals and plants at the organismic level, with emphasis on their evolution and various physiological processes such as respiration, circulation, digestion, and reproduction. This course serves as the foundation for all upper-level biology courses. Three hours of class.

    3
    BIO144L Lab: The Organism

    Experiments to complement the material presented in BIO144. Two hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite: BIO144. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fees.

    1
    BIO231 Cell and Molecular Biology

    A lecture course covering the organelles and activities of cells. Topics include the structure of proteins and other biomolecules, bioenergetics and enzymes, membranes, the mitochondrion, the chloroplast, the endo-membrane system, the cytoskeleton, and the nucleus and cellular reproduction.

    Pre-requisites Complete all 2 of the following courses:
  • BIO143 The Cell
  • CHM108 Chemistry II
  • 3
    BIO408 Developmental Biology

    A study of the embryonic and post-embryonic development of animals, with special emphasis on humans. The morphogenesis, growth and mechanisms of differentiation are stressed. Other topics include cancer, regeneration, cloning, hormones as mediators of development, and developmental genetics.

    Pre-requisites Complete any 1 of the following courses:
  • BIO231 Cell and Molecular Biology
  • BIO231W Cell and Molecular Biology
  • 3
    BIO417 Genetics

    This study of the modern concepts of the gene stresses theory and experimental evidence relating to the structure of the gene, heritability of characteristics, and the behavior of genes in populations. Three hours of lecture per week.

    Pre-requisites Complete all 3 of the following courses:
  • BIO231W Cell and Molecular Biology
  • CHM205 Organic Chemistry I
  • MTH110 Elementary Statistics
  • 3
    BIO490 Integrative Capstone

    The integrative capstone, undertaken by the student during the senior year, is an extended project that helps the student complete their transition from an undergraduate student to a world-ready professional. The study usually centers on the student's major and may be conducted, at least in part, in the context of a group experience. Such programs are crafted to meet the unique needs of each major, and could include, for example, fieldwork, theater production, creative work in the arts, independent research, or independent readings. The integrative capstone in an interdisciplinary major must have the approval of both academic programs.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • IND350W Scientific Research Methods
  • 3
    CHM108 Chemistry II

    This course is the second course in a two-semester sequence designed to provide a robust foundation in the principles of chemistry. Topics include thermochemistry, phase changes, chemical equilibrium, acids and bases, reactions in aqueous solution, thermodynamics, kinetics, and electrochemistry.

    Pre-requisites Complete any 1 of the following courses:
  • CHM105 General Chemistry
  • CHM107 Chemistry I
  • 3
    CHM110L Chemistry II Laboratory

    Continued introduction to the basic experimental procedures and laboratory techniques in chemistry. Experiments are correlated with lectures in Chemistry 108. Three hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite: CHM 108. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fee.

    1
    CHM205 Organic Chemistry I

    Development of the structural theory of organic compounds. Relationship of structure to reactivity, stereochemistry, types of organic reactive intermediates, and the chemistry of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic compounds are covered. Co-requisite: CHM 215.

    Pre-requisites Complete all 2 of the following courses:
  • CHM108 Chemistry II
  • CHM110L Chemistry II Laboratory
  • 3
    CHM215L Elementary Organic Laboratory

    Basic manipulative skills, including introduction to several chromatographic techniques, are followed by chemistry of alkenes and aromatic compounds. Four hours of laboratory per week. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fee.

    2
    CHM206 Organic Chemistry II

    Discussion of organic functional groups and their chemistry. Spectroscopy, mechanisms, and synthetic type-reactions are included. A discussion of biologically important compounds is covered during the last third of the term.

    Pre-requisites Complete all 2 of the following courses:
  • CHM205 Organic Chemistry I
  • CHM215L Elementary Organic Laboratory
  • 3
    CHM216LW Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Chemistry of organic functional groups. Identification of unknowns and a multistep synthesis. Four hours of laboratory per week. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fee.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • CHM215L Elementary Organic Laboratory
  • 2
    CHM338 Biochemistry I

    This course covers the structure and functions of proteins, polynucleic acids, and biological membranes. Enzymes and kinetics are taught. Metabolic pathways, with emphasis on the thermodynamics of the equilibria and the storage and usage of energy, are covered.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • CHM205 Organic Chemistry I
  • 3
    CHM340L Macromolecule Laboratory

    An advanced laboratory course for junior and senior science majors who wish to gain theoretical and practical experience with the techniques and equipment commonly used in the fields of cellular biology, molecular biology, and biochemistry. Topics include PCR, electrophoresis, enzyme kinetics, aseptic cell and tissue culture, cell surface receptors, and molecular modeling. Five-hour laboratory with one-hour pre-lab lecture each week. Cross-listed as BIO. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fee.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • CHM338 Biochemistry I
  • 2
    MTH151 Calculus I

    This is the first course in the calculus sequence. Topics include differential and integral calculus for algebraic and trigonometric functions with applications. Four hours of class per week.

    4
    IND200W Introduction to Scientific Research

    This course introduces students to all phases of research from conceptualization of the research question to the interpretation of results. Topics include why and how to conduct research, the scientific method, issues key to research (research design, causation, data collection). Statistical software packages and basic statistical analysis will be covered.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • ENG105 First-Year Writing
  • 2
    IND350W Scientific Research Methods

    This course serves as an introduction to research literature and research methodology in the sciences. Topics include professional writing, experimental design, presentation techniques, and professional and research ethics. Credit is not given for both IND350W and EXS301W.

    2
    --------------------
    PHY251 Principles of Physics I

    Introduction to the concepts, laws, and structure of physics. This is the first course in a calculus-based sequence that focuses on classical mechanics. Topics include vector analysis, kinematics, Newton's laws, work, conservation of energy and momentum, collisions, gravity, harmonic motion, and wave phenomena.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • MTH151 Calculus I
  • 4
    OR
    PHY151 Fundamentals of Physics I

    Introduction to the fundamental concepts of laws and mechanics. This is the first course in an algebra-based sequence. Topics include motion, Newton's Laws, gravity, conservation of energy and momentum, collisions, circular and harmonic motion, and waves.

    3
    --------------------
    PHY252 Principles of Physics II

    Introduction to the concepts, laws, and structure of physics. The second course in a calculus-based physics sequence. Topics include thermodynamics, fluids, electricity, circuit analysis, magnetism, Maxwell’s equations, properties of light, and optics. Four hours of class per week.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • PHY251 Principles of Physics I
  • 4
    OR
    PHY152 Fundamentals of Physics II

    This is the second course in an algebra-based sequence. Topics include electricity and magnetism, circuits, sound, optics, and relativity.

    Pre-requisites Complete the following course:
  • PHY151 Fundamentals of Physics I
  • 3
    --------------------
    PHY255L Physics Laboratory I

    Experimental techniques of classical mechanical physics. Three hours of laboratory per week. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fee.

    1
    OR
    PHY155L Fundamentals of Physics Laboratory I

    An algebra-based exploration of the experimental techniques of classical physics, with applications to mechanics.

    Co-requisites
    • PHY151 Fundamentals of Physics I
    1
    --------------------
    PHY256L Physics Laboratory II

    Experimental techniques of classical physics with applications to electricity, magnetism, sound, and optics. Three hours per week. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fee.

    1
    OR
    PHY156L Fundamentals of Physics Laboratory II

    An algebra-based exploration of the experimental techniques of classical physics, with applications to electricity, magnetism, sound, and optics. Three hours of laboratory per week. Co-requisite: PHY152.

    Co-requisites
    • PHY152 Fundamentals of Physics II
    1
    --------------------

    +Minor in Botany

    Botany, or plant biology, is the scientific study of plants, from algae to giant sequoia trees. A minor in botany is ideal for students who wish to supplement their studies in some other discipline with a concentrated study of plant life.

    19-21 Credits of Required Courses*
    --------------------
    BIO144 The Organism

    This course provides a general survey of animals and plants at the organismic level, with emphasis on their evolution and various physiological processes such as respiration, circulation, digestion, and reproduction. This course serves as the foundation for all upper-level biology courses. Three hours of class.

    3
    OR
    ENV129 Our Fragile Earth: A Scientific Perspective

    This course introduces students to a wide range of environmental issues from a scientific perspective. Specific topics vary from year to year, but this course utilizes lectures, discussions, laboratories, guest speakers and field trips to increase knowledge about environmental problems as well as increase scientific knowledge and literacy.

    3
    OR
    SUS201 Integrative Biology

    This course will introduce traditional biological concepts from molecules to organisms within an integrative and applied framework. Students will learn the interdisciplinary nature and common approaches of biology through applied topics relevant to sustainability such as human and ecological health, freshwater and marine fisheries, energy sources, and climate dynamics.

    3
    --------------------
    BIO144L Lab: The Organism

    Experiments to complement the material presented in BIO144. Two hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite: BIO144. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fees.

    1
    OR
    ENV129L Our Fragile Earth Lab

    This lab offers hands-on opportunity to perform basic environmental lab skills, including water testing, bioassay, and greenhouse experiment protocol. The course may be taken independently as a freestanding environmental lab course. Two hours of laboratory per week. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fee.

    1
    OR
    SUS201L Integrative Biology Lab

    Laboratory exercises including data collection, small-scale experimentation, data modeling, and simulation will be experienced to complement the material covered in SUS 201. Two hours of laboratory will be held per week at the Eden Hall Campus aquatic science lab. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fees = S50.

    1
    --------------------
    CHM107 Chemistry I

    This course is the first course in a two-semester sequence designed to provide a robust foundation in the principles of chemistry. Topics include atomic and electronic structure, periodicity, nomenclature, dimensional analysis, reaction stoichiometry, molecular shapes, bonding, intermolecular forces, gases, solids, liquids, and solutions.

    3
    OR
    CHM102 Chemistry in Context

    One semester lecture course with selected topics in inorganic and organic chemistry. Emphasis is on relevance to biological and environmental issues. Topics include matter, energy, atomic and molecular structure, bonding, reaction chemistry, and radioactivity. Three hours of lecture per week. Not open to majors in biology or chemistry.

    3
    --------------------
    CHM109L Chemistry I Laboratory

    Introduction to the basic experimental procedures and laboratory techniques in chemistry. Experiments are correlated with the lectures in Chemistry 105 and Chemistry 107. Three hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite: CHM 105 or 107. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fee.

    1
    OR
    CHM102L Chemistry in Context Lab

    One semester laboratory course to accompany CHM102 Chemistry in Context. Two hours of lab per week. Not open to majors in biology or chemistry.

    1
    --------------------
    BIO224 Botany

    An introduction to the structure and function of plants. Topics include the evolutionary rise of green plants, plant life cycles and development, plant physiology, plant ecology, and the morphology and taxonomy of vascular plants. The importance of plants fro humans is discussed, including their use for food and medicine. Three hours of lecture per week.

    Pre-requisites Complete any 1 of the following courses:
  • BIO144 The Organism
  • SUS201 Integrative Biology
  • 3
    BIO224L Lab: Botany

    Experiments to complement the material presented in BIO224. Four hours of laboratory or field experience per week. Corequisite: BIO224. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fees.

    Co-requisites
    • BIO224 Botany
    2
    Two (2) courses (minimum 6 credits) from the list below:
    ENV250 Plants, People, and the Environment

    An introduction to the uses of plants by humans. Topics include the form, structure and genetics of plants related to their use as sources of food, shelter, fiber, flavors, beverages, drugs, and medicines. Plant structure and reproduction are studied in lecture and in-class activities with a particular focus on relationships between the plant's structural, chemical, or physiological attributes and the agricultural plant. Agricultural policies will also be discussed. Three hours of lecture per week.

    Pre-requisites Complete any 1 of the following courses:
  • ENV116 Global Environmental Challenges
  • ENV129 Our Fragile Earth: A Scientific Perspective
  • 3
    --------------------
    BIO484 Plant Physiology

    This course is an introduction to the physiology and biochemistry of plants. Lectures and laboratory exercises cover plant cells, enzymes, transport of water and nutrients, metabolism, defenses against pathogens, gene expression, hormones, and responses to environmental stimuli. Three lectures per week.

    Pre-requisites Complete any 1 of the following courses:
  • CHM108 Chemistry II
  • BIO224 Botany
  • 3
    AND
    BIO484L Lab: Plant Physiology

    Experiments to complement the material presented in BIO384. Four hours of laboratory per week. Corequisite: BIO484. Additional Fee(s): Laboratory fees.

    Co-requisites
    • BIO484 Plant Physiology
    2
    --------------------
    ENV208 Backpacking: Experiencing the Natural History of Western

    Students learn local land-use and natural history, including soil formation, flora, and some fauna. Also covered are wilderness trip planning and leadership, including principles for minimizing human impacts and conserving outdoor spaces and wilderness heritage. One weekend overnight camping trip is required. Prior completion of 100-level science course is desirable.

    3
    FST150 Food, Farm & Field

    This course explores food, farm, and environment through readings, films, lectures, demonstrations, field trips, and on-farm and kitchen experiences in research and production problems. Activities include presentations on specific topics, group discussions, hands-on lab and field activities, individual and group presentations, field trips, and reflection through writing, video, and photography.

    3
    --------------------
    FST320 Basic Agroecology

    Through working on Chatham's Eden Hall Farm as well as neighboring farms, students will integrate best practices for sustainable agriculture with theory encountered in class. Topics will include basic principles of soil fertility, biodiversity, agriculture history, effects of both conventional and organic agriculture, and the politics surrounding the issues.

    3
    AND
    FST320L Growing Sustainably Lab

    Through working with Chatham's Eden Hall Farm as well as visiting neighboring farms, students will integrate best practices for sustainable agriculture with theory encountered in classes. Topics will include basic principles of soil fertility, biodiversity, greenhouse production, agriculture history, effects of both conventional and organic agriculture, and the politics surrounding the issues.

    1
    --------------------
    FST428 Tree Care

    Tree care skills are integral to sustainable land and food system management. This course provides an introduction to arboriculture, tree climbing and pruning. It will teach proper tree pruning, basics of climbing, and basic equipment safety, applicable to tree work in urban or agricultural settings.

    3
    SUS355 Forestry

    This course introduces forest ecosystems around the world, explores their ecology and management, and examines the practical and economic aspects of forestry. Topics include tree growth strategies, successional change, nutrient cycling, silviculture, timber harvesting, and human-induced stressors. Tree ID and field methods will be taught in the Eden Hall woodland.

    3